The body cannot be adequately supplied with nutrients if the daily diet is not balanced. The diet becomes particularly complex if a person has problems with metabolism or has to live according to a specific diet.
The term “diabetes mellitus” describes a chronic disorder of the carbohydrate metabolism that is caused by an insulin deficiency or diminished insulin sensitivity. The result of the metabolic disease is an elevated blood glucose level. If untreated, this can lead to sequelae such as vascular changes and even blindness. For example, hypoglycaemic shock is among the acute complications. This disease is commonly referred to as diabetes. Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are the most well-known forms of this disease.
Type 1 diabetes usually occurs among adolescents under age 20; today it is categorised among the autoimmune diseases, whereby insulitis with subsequent destruction of beta cells comes about with corresponding genetic disposition under the influence of various factors.
About 10 % of diabetics suffer from this condition.
Type 2 diabetes usually starts at an advanced age; there is an insulin resistance, primarily of the liver and skeletal muscles, but also a disturbance of the “island function”. Obesity or the underlying lifestyle behind this condition is considered the most important factor for the emergence of type 2 diabetes.
About 90 % of diabetics suffer from this condition.
Symptoms of untreated diabetes mellitus include fatigue, exhaustion, reduced performance, weight loss, visual disorders, and hypoglycaemias with a feeling of hunger, cold sweat and tachycardia, muscle cramps, nausea and vomiting. A doctor will take care of diagnosis and therapy. Different values such as blood glucose and urine will be measured and analysed in the process.
A doctor will also determine the therapy, inform the patient about diabetes and prescribe a diet. The reduction of risk factors with diabetes usually occurs medicinally. In general, a patient should strive for a stable metabolic status.